MyAmericanFuture

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MyAmericanFuture

Saturday, October 22, 2016

October 22-23, 2016: Colin Kaepernick and 1960s Legacies



[On October 15th, 1966, the Black Panthers were founded in Oakland, California by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale. So this week I’ve AmericanStudied a handful of histories and stories connected to the Panthers, leading up to this special weekend post on an unfolding contemporary history that echoes the group’s activism and legacy. For another historical parallel to Kaepernick, see this great US Sport History post by Kevin Rossi.]
On two ways the controversial quarterback is extending a historical influence.
Although the presidential election has of course sucked much of the oxygen out of any other news stories of late, one of the other most talked-about stories of the fall has been San Francisco 49ers backup (and now starting) quarterback Colin Kaepernick’s #BlackLivesMatter-connected national anthem protests. In the course of his two months (to date) of protesting, Kaepernick has inspired similar protests across the league (and other sports leagues), sparred with a Supreme Court Justice (and even changed her perspective in the process, per that hyperlinked story), and produced numerous thinkpieces on whether he’s contributing to apparently declining ratings and attendance for the NFL, among many other effects. But too much of the time, journalistic stories on Kaepernick have focused on these 2016 questions and issues, rather than linking him and his protest to what seems to me (and other historians) its perfectly clear historical origin: the 1968 national anthem Black Power protest in Mexico City by U.S. Olympic sprinters Tommie Smith and John Carlos.
As is so often the case with history (see for example the collective embrace of Martin Luther King Jr., compared to the vitriol and hate he faced in his lifetime), the Mexico City protest has perhaps come to seem less controversial or divisive than was the case in its moment. As Smith and Carlos have amply testified, they were (and have continued to be for nearly four decades) on the receiving end of just as much racist, faux-patriotic nastiness in the aftermath of their protest as Kaepernick has been. Which, to be clear, they very much expected, and indeed was precisely the point of choosing both the Olympic stage overall and the potent symbolic moment of the national anthem specifically as the occasion for their protest. Similarly, Kaepernick has made clear that he was and remains prepared for the consequences of his own anthem protest, and has—by donating a million dollars to activist organizations in the Bay Area—demonstrated his deep and ongoing commitment to the cultural and political causes for which he’s protesting. In those ways, Kaepernick’s protests can be seen as also paralleling the Black Panther Party—a source of controversy and division, but also an example of thoughtful and committed activism for and contributions to social justice efforts.
While the Mexico City protest and the Black Panther Party had a good deal in common, I would also differentiate them when it comes to audience. That is, the Black Panthers very overtly focused on addressing and engaging with fellow African Americans, while Smith and Carlos were seeking to reach a broader national (and even worldwide) audience with their message. Both kinds of activism are equally important and complement each other, so the difference isn’t a hierarchy in any sense; just another layer to analyzing these respective efforts. I would put Kaepernick’s protests in the “broader audience” category, and I have one particularly clear illustration of his effects on that level: my older son (pictured above, although almost 11 years old now). While I talk about lots of AmericanStudies kinds of topics with the boys, I don’t believe we had yet talked about Kaepernick when, out of the blue, he told me that his 5th-grade chorus is practicing “America the Beautiful,” but that he had chosen not to sing, “just like Colin Kaepernick.” A few days later, he mentioned that he had decided not to say the Pledge of Allegiance during morning announcements; his teacher asked him to do so, but he resisted. With at least this one thoughtful young American, the influence and inspiration of Kaepernick’s historically grounded protests have been tangible and impressive.
Next series starts Monday,
Ben
PS. What do you think? Other contemporary issues or stories you’d link to the Panthers?

2 comments:

  1. Great stuff Ben! I agree Smith and Carlos were quite different from the Black Panthers in their intended audience. Many folks call their demonstration a "black power salute" but they disagree, and point to the OPHR (Olympic Project for Human Rights), its goals with Harry Edwards, and a proposed boycott of the '68 games (Lew Alcindor actually went through with it). The OPHR had 3 major goals: restore Ali's title, have Avery Brundage resign as IOC & USOC president, and get South Africa and Rhodesia disinvited. More broadly, though, they wanted to draw attention to the hypocrisy of using black athletes in the Olympics to showcase American progress and the ideals of democracy during the Cold War, while the reality was much more bleak for African Americans at home (especially if you consider the various riots in 1967-68).

    I wrote on my personal blog about the connections between what Kaepernick is doing and W.E.B. Dubois' concept of double consciousness. In my view, Keapernick's demonstration and explanation of it embodies much of those ideals. He is also echoing the OPHR ideas of hypocrisy of showcasing black excellence in sports but overlooking the very real racial injustices in the U.S. Implicit in his argument, I think though he hasn't verbalized this, is that sports have become a bit of distraction from a *real* issues facing African American communities and a sort of faux indicator of progress.

    I thick the Black Panthers certainly have some relevance as does the more general move toward more assertiveness in African American activism and culture. I just gave this lecture in my class last week, and I like to link what is going on in sports, and the splintering of the Civil Rights movement to the difference between Motown and Stax-Volt funk music as showing this transition. So much of Kaepernick's demonstration as well as his aesthetic with his afro throwback to this era.

    Sorry for the long, some what scatterbrained comment!

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  2. Thanks so much, Andrew! Really interesting and important contexts for 68, Kaepernick, and a lot else besides.

    Ben

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